Octavio Salazar Benítez (Universidad de Córdoba)
Professor in Constitutional Law (University of Cordoba, Spain).
Research lines: gender equality, LGTBI rights, new masculinities, cultural diversity and human rights. Member of Feminist Network of Constitutional Law. Member of Men network for Gender Equality. Author of Cartografías de la igualdad (2010), Masculinidades y ciudadanías: los hombres también tenemos género (2013), La igualdad en rodaje: Masculinidades, género y cine (2015).
Erosion of Heteropatriarcal Citizenship: Reflections on sexuality policies in Spain
In the last 40 years the Spanish legal system has experienced a positive evolution in terms of LGTBI rights. The system has gone from the criminal persecution of homosexuality to the criminal prosecution of homophobia. For example, Spain was one of the first countries to recognize the gay marriage. In this evolution the role of the legislator has been essential but also the struggle of LGBTI collectives. At the same time, numerous laws have been adopted against discrimination of women. These laws have contributed to the progressive transformation of the sexist spanish society. As a result, we can find new reflections about hegemonic masculinity and in the last few years, men groups have started to work for the objective of new masculinities.
However, the Spanish society is still patriarchal: it is based on the binary opposition of gender and in a traditional and hegemonic model of masculinity. Therefore, it`s necessary a true “male revolution” that can get a society without “opposition male/ female” and where the true recognition of the plural identities is possible. This implies the application of international human rights laws in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity but also the transformation of the bases of the Subjectivity and the rule of the social contract. A cultural and political transformation that must have an influence on two basic concepts of constitutionalism: power and citizenship.